Directory Services and Security Services


Directory Services and Security Services


Directory Service: Directories are everywhere. When you need to make a phone 
call, you look up the number in phone directory. When you need to find the address of a client, you look up the name in your address book. And when you need to find  the Sam Goody store at a shopping mall, you look for the mail directory.

Networks have directions, too . Network directions provide information about the resources that are available on  the network, such as users computers, printers, shared folders, and files. Directories are an essential part of any server operating system. 
The most popular directory service used today is called active directory (AD). AD is a database that organizes information about a network and allows users and computer to gain permission to access network resources. AD is simple enough to use for small networks with just a few dozen computers and users, but powerful enough to work with large networks containing tens of thousands of computers.

Security Services: All server operating system must provide some measure of security to protect the network from unauthorized access. Hacking seems to be the international pastime these days. With most computer network connected to the internet, anyone anywhere in the world can probably will try to break into your network. 

The most  basic type of security is handled through user accounts, which grant individuals users the right to access the network resources and also govern  what resources each user can access. User accounts are secured by password, so a good password policy is a cornerstone  of any security system. Password policies can require that password have a minimum length and include a mix of letters, numbers, and symbols. In addition, can be forced to frequently change their passwords.

Most server operating systems also provide for data encryption, which scrambles data before it's sent over the network or  saved on disk, and digital certificates, which are used to ensure that users are who they say  they are and files are what they claim to be.

The overwhelming majority of business networks rely on server versions of windows, known as Windows server. Microsoft periodically releases updated versions of windows server, so windows server is frequently improved, and older versions are occasionally rendered obsolete, currently, the most commonly used versions are windows server 2008, windows Server 2012, Windows Server 2016.

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